Five suspects, including a policeman and a quarantine officer, were arrested for allegedly facilitating their travel, the government agency fighting trafficking says.
The victims, nine girls and one boy, were rescued while trying to board a Moscow bound plane from Lagos.
They had football supporter ID cards in order to look as though they were part a group of Nigerian football supporters heading to the World Cup in Russia.
The children, who were unaccompanied, are now in a shelter for victims of trafficking which run by the National Agency for Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (Naptip).
Five other potential victims, also children, were stopped from boarding a flight to Russia when staff noticed they had one-way tickets.
Criminals have been pressurising young Nigerians and their parents to take advantage of the World Cup to get Russian visas, Naptip says. It warns that, once out of the country, the victims would be exploited by traffickers.